Department of Biology, Addis Ababa University
Research and Development Center for Genetics, Biotechnology and Biodivrsity
The significance of studying evolution and origin of domesticated stream of social anthropology and indeed as determinant of the future of man and foundation for globalization. These contributions are further linked to the era of biology as ideology where both humanity and natural science must reciprocate to benefit and guide human society. Plants and animals are presented in the form of their contribution to our understanding about the cradle of civilization, human survival and development, and as a main
The ancestral parents that have contributed to the origin and evolution of Coffea arabica are reviewed based on molecular systematics and genetics data. The importance of coffee in creating social space for the promotion of not only local democratic space but also a global unity as well as a creative space for evolutionary innovation is suggested with some anthropological inferences.
Graduate School of Asian and African Area Studies (ASAFAS), Kyoto University, Japan
In the forest of Gera, situated in mountainous forest area of southwestern Ethiopia, Coffea arabica (Rubiaceae) richly flourish in the wild states. Farmers living in surrounding villages pick coffees by staying in the forest for at least 3 months during dry season (from October to March). They also gather kororimas (Aframomum corrorima / Zingiberaceae), a kind of spice which is similar to cardamom and several useful plants in dry season and harvest honey in rainy season (from May to September). Cash income obtained by selling the forest resources, especially coffee, occupies most of household income.
The result of the vegetation surveys conducted in the forest shows high frequency of C. arabica at the place where people pick coffee and weed the ground every year and low frequency of C. arabica at the place where people do not often enter. The result indicates human activities, especially weeding, altered the forest vegetation into people’s favorable pattern.
Although much C. arabica grows in the forest, local people often say there were not much C. arabica few decades ago. They used the forest only for harvesting honey and valuable trees. In the forest, several trees suitable for beehive, such as Olea welwitschii (Oleqacea) and Croton macrostachyus (Euphorbiaceae) and other valuable trees such as Cordia Africana (Boraginaceae) and Poteria adolfi-friedrici (Sapotaceae) stand. Also traces of people utilizing them are confirmed. Although cutting trees down is often considered to degrade forests, the act created gaps in the forest and resultantly enhanced the growth of coffees in the forest.
Key Words: Forest coffee, semi-forest coffee, C. arabica, mountain forest, Ethiopia
Getachew Berhan and Gemedo Dalle
Institute of Biodiversity Conservation, Ethiopia
Coffea arabica L. is one of the economic plant species in Ethiopia. Natural coffee forests are managed by local community with the objective of sustainable harvesting of the coffee forest, which positively contributes to biodiversity conservation. However, due to high pressure and habitat fragmentation, forest genetic resources in general and the wild coffee in particular is highly threatened in Ethiopia.
The objectives of the study were to: (1) determine the spatial distribution of wild coffee in South West forests of Ethiopia; and (2) determine the potential contribution of Coffee for the conservation of the remnant forests of the study area. The study areas were 11 moist evergreen forests in different parts of Ethiopia. A systematic transect line sampling technique was employed with a sample size of 10 m x 50 m (500 m2) in a total of 712 plots for the density distribution survey. ArcGIS was used for mapping the spatial distribution of C. arabica in the study areas. Different PRA tools (Social Mapping, History Telling and Ranking) were employed for the socio-economic survey. In the surveyed forests, species richness was positively correlated with the density of wild coffee (Coffea arabica), demonstrating the fact that management of the coffee forests has significantly contributed to the conservation of biodiversity in the study area. The spatial distribution map of C. arabica in the studied forests was also presented for proposing the potential in-situ conservation sites. It could be concluded that wild C. arabica is contributing for the conservation and sustainability of South West forests of Ethiopia and special attention should be given for future strengthening of local community wild C. arabica management systems so that sustainable natural resources could be achieved.
Key Words: Coffea arabica, Density; Spatial distribution, ArcGIS, Montane forest